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Starting the day with a nice, warm shower is part of the routine for many people. However, you may not realize you’re damaging your home every time you don’t turn on the exhaust fan. Not turning on the exhaust fan or not having one encourages mold growth and structural damage even if you live in a dry climate.
Exhaust fans are necessary for bathrooms of all varieties due to the amount of moisture a running shower, bath, or sink adds to the room. There may also be exhaust fans in laundry rooms and utility rooms, especially interior ones, to remove moisture generated by appliances while they are in use.
Exhaust fans are necessary, but their installation and size depend on the space in which you install them. You may also have exhaust fans already, but they are venting to the wrong location or they are too small, which can damage your home. Proper exhaust fan installation and venting protect your investment and family.
Why are Exhaust Fans Necessary at All?
Exhaust fans, especially in bathrooms, promote your overall comfort. If you have ever showered in a bathroom without one, you know it only takes two minutes before it seems like you’re trying to breathe through pea soup. Without a working exhaust fan, the humidity a shower creates makes it hard to feel dry as well.
Unfortunately, bathrooms are not the only place where moisture can enter the air as humidity and cause moisture buildup in your walls. Areas like laundry rooms or interior utility rooms are especially prone to moisture buildup that can weaken your drywall. This buildup can also cause your house studs to swell, which is not good for structural integrity.
The big issue with moisture buildup is the organisms it promotes. Both mold and fungus adore moisture, so moisture buildup in your walls or ceiling is paradise to them. Mold and fungus can cause various health problems like allergies or pulmonary fibrosis with long-term exposure.
Exhaust fans also help smells dissipate. Most often, moisture leads to a musty smell, especially in a small room. However, there are other smells that you may want to be removed from your bathroom. Exhaust fans work on all of them within minutes.
Additionally, the International Residential Code (IRC) also specifies the use of exhaust fans in bathrooms and other rooms with insufficient airflow. State and local building codes across the United States typically adopt IRC sections without much revision.
Does a Powder Room Need an Exhaust Fan?
Powder rooms do not technically require an exhaust fan if they have a functional window. This window must be at least 3 feet square, and it must open if used in place of an exhaust fan. IRC M1505.4.4 addresses the necessary exhaust rates for various rooms.
Powder rooms first appears in the 18th century as the room where wigs were re-powdered. The modern powder room consists of only a toilet and a sink. You may have one on the main level of your home for guests to use.
Most modern homes incorporate an exhaust fan in the powder room because it effectively ensures a high enough ventilation rate in the room. You may find that the exhaust fan deals primarily with smells in a powder room rather than excessive moisture since sinks tend not to generate much humidity.
Since there is no excess moisture a ductless bathroom fan is an acceptable solution for a powder room. Ductless fans effectively remove smells by filtering the air through an activated carbon filter.
Exhaust Fans in the Laundry Room
Laundry rooms may not seem like they need exhaust fans. However, most do not meet the requirements for airflow in a room people use without them. Additionally, you may want one since washers generate humidity while they are in use.
Your laundry room may not have an exhaust fan, but this is normally because the calculated airflow rate is sufficient for the area.
For example, laundry rooms tucked behind a louvered door in a hallway take advantage of the larger area’s airflow.
Remember, a dryer is a different situation. Per IRC M1502, clothes dryers must have separate ventilation systems from all other systems in the house. They must also vent directly outside, and homeowners should have the dryer vent cleaned at least once per year.
Does a Utility Room Need an Exhaust Fan?
A utility room houses large appliances, such as water heaters, HVAC systems, washers, and dryers. Your home’s utility room may be your laundry room, or it may be a separate space depending on the type of water heater and your builder.
Each type of water heater has slightly different requirements for ventilation. Those that use combustion, such as gas or propane, require a ventilation system per IRC G2407. Meanwhile, solar systems do not require exhaust fans.
Often, your water heater, furnace, or other utility appliances may share an exhaust system. Provided the system size is appropriate, this should not present any issues. If you replace one of the appliances, ask the installing technician if the exhaust system can still handle it.
Is an Exhaust Fan Required in a Half Bath?
A half bath is typically the same as a powder room with only a toilet and sink. However, any combination of two of the four main bathroom appliances counts as a half bath. A bathtub and a toilet would count as a half bath since it does not contain a sink and shower.
If there is either a shower or a bathtub in the half bath, it will add moisture when in use and require an exhaust fan. IRC M1505.4.4 contains the minimum exhaust rate, though it may be wise to exceed the minimum to prevent moisture buildup. Remember, exhaust from a bathroom must vent directly outside.
Do Basement Bathrooms Need Exhaust Fans?
Basement bathrooms require an exhaust fan unless your home layout has an operable window with enough airflow to vent the space. This requirement applies even if the basement bathroom does not have bathing facilities.
In most basements, this means an exhaust fan that must vent directly outside per IRC M1501.0 and M1505.2 and cannot vent into an unfinished area of the home.
But neglecting to install an exhaust fan can make the effort useless since the moisture damage that will be caused by an unventilated bathroom will be expensive to remove.
If you are finishing a basement, ensure that your contractor understands this requirement to avoid penalties at inspection.
Does a Bathroom Need an Extractor Fan?
Bathrooms require extractor fans, whether ceiling insert, wall insert, or inline fans, especially if they lack other ventilation options. An extractor fan pulls air up, and it vents outside via ductwork. When the shower or bathtub is going, it also removes humidity, which can build up and cause damage.
Using an extractor or exhaust fan is necessary for most scenarios to achieve the airflow for the enclosed space. IRC M1505.4.4 specifies the minimum airflow requirements for a bathroom to avoid musty smells and humidity buildup.
A ventilation method must be both installed and used. You and your family should turn the fan on before beginning bathing and leave it on for at least 10 minutes after the water stops flowing to ensure extra humidity removal.
Home inspectors will check bathroom exhaust fans for functionality and proper venting. With typical use, a bathroom fan will last about 10 years before you must replace it. You may also want to confirm that your ductwork for the bathroom exhaust is straight, leak-free, and venting outside before anyone inspects your home.
Related article: Can a Dehumidifier Be Used Instead Of a Bathroom Fan?
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